Kok Chen, W7AY [w7ay (at )arrl (dot) net]
Last updated: March 13, 2013
AVR Tools is a Mac OS X GUI that uses avrdude to program Atmel AVR microcontrollers. With AVR Tools and Xcode, you can do all of your development without using the Unix terminal of Mac OS X.
In addition to a code (hex) uploader, AVR Tools includes a terminal emulator which can be used to communicate with serial ports, such as the serial port in the Arduino, or the spare RS-232 port on the Atmel STK500 Development board. The terminal emulator can be run stand-alone, without connecting AVR Tools to any development board.
AVR Tools also allows you to upload and save the program memory contents, EEPROM and fuses from the AVR in hex format.
Additionally, the Using Xcode page documents what is needed to develop AVR programs with the Mac OS X Xcode IDE. Xcode can compile a C program into a hex file, which can then be uploaded to an AVR programmer by using AVR Tools.
AVR Tools is not a supported product, but simply a project that I wrote for myself to use. If you have similar needs, the AVR Tools application and project sources are completely free.
AVR Tools is built as a Universal Binary application and works natively with both the PowerPC and the Intel based Macintosh running Leopard (Mac OS X 10.5) or newer. You can download both the AVR Tools application and Xcode project from the Download page. The sources in AVR Tools are GPL free, and you are free to make any changes that you want without the need to republish your work..
The terminal emulator (Term.m) in AVR Tools is an Objective-C extension of the NSTextView class. It can be used as sample code for any Cocoa application that needs to communicate with a Mac OS X serial port through a text view.
Included with this documentation is a set of step by step tutorials on how to use the tools to build a working program and upload it to an AVR on an Arduino board or an STK500 development kit.
CrossPack is a tool chain that includes avrdude, the gcc compiler and libraries for the AVR. AVR Tools assume that you will be using CrossPack. The CrossPack page has information you will need to install CrossPack.
AVR Tools uses avrdude to perform the actual uploads to and downloads from an AVR programmer. avrdude is a Unix executable that you will have to download and install separately (see CrossPack above). AVR Tools does not embed any of the avrdude source code; it simply runs avrdude as a task when it needs to communicate with an AVR programmer.
Although it has only been tested with the Arduino and the Atmel STK500 development kit, avrdude should work with many other AVR programmers.
In order for AVR Tools to find avrdude, you will need to identify the location of the Development package. In the case of CrossPack, the installer creates a folder that is soft linked to /usr/local/CrossPack-AVR. AVR Tools needs to know where to find the avrdude executable file. This is done through the Preferences window in AVR Tools.
AVR Tools defaults to using the CrossPack tool chain. If you use some other tools, you will need to change the location in AVR Tools's Preferences.
In the case above, AVR Tools will assume that avrdude is located at /usr/local/CrossPack-AVR/bin/avrdude.
If you have installed the tool chain somewhere else, you can manually change your preference to be the directory that encloses the bin directory that avrdude resides in. You can default back to the CrossPack tool chain by clicking on the Use CrossPack button in the Preferences window.
An AVR Tool session consists of a set of selections (the location of hex file, the serial port and type of development board, the AVR chip type which is being programmed, etc) that can be saved and re-used in the future.
After launching AVR Tools, you can select a New Session, or open an existing session file.
Each session can be saved (or saved into a file with a different name). The saved file is a Cocoa dictionary (similar to a plist file) with the properties of the session. The saved file has an avrtools file extension. You can also launch AVR Tools with the saved settings simply by double clicking on the avrtools file in the Finder.
When you select New Session, a new AVR Tools session window will appear, showing the Program tab. The Upload button in this tab view is used to program new firmware into your AVR.
Use a Browse button to select a hex file to upload to the programmer.
To clear either the Flash (program) or the EEPROM fields, click Browse button and then Cancel from the file open dialog. That will clear the corresponding text field. AVR Tools avoids touching the memory of a hex file field that are not defined..
If the file that contains the hex code does not use the .hex extension, uncheck the .hex only checkbox. With the .hex only selected, all other files (except folders) are grayed out, making it easy to find files with the .hex extension.
The scrolled text view under the text fields contains the console log from avrdude. The Clear button at the bottom left of the window clears this log. You can cut and paste from this log, but text that is typed into this text view will be ignored. If you want to talk directly to the STK500 programming port, you can use the Terminal emulator (described later).
If this is a newly created session, you will need to first fill a few other items in the other tab views before you click on the Upload button.
The Fuses tab lets you set the fuses in the AVR chip. You will usually not need to change the default fuses that are shipped in the chip. If you leave a fuse field empty, that fuse will not be touched. If you want a fuse to be programmed, enter a two digit hex value, such as 62 or bf.
The Device tab contains a popup menu for you to select the AVR chip that you are programming.
The Programmer tab lets you select the development board that you are using for programming, together with the serial port it uses. avrdude supports a number of programmers, although I have only tested AVR Tools on the Arduino UNO, Arduino Micro and the Atmel STK500.
Please make sure that you select the "Version 2" STK500 (as shown below) if you have a more recent STK500. If you select the original Atmel STK500 from the popup menu, avrdude will take extra time to discover that it really is talking to a version 2 board. If you choose to use the high voltage programming function on the STK500, you will need to select the high voltage version of the STK500 in the popup menu.
You need to select the serial port (either a serial adapter or a USB port on the programmer) that you are using to communicate with the programmer.
The example below shows the Arduino UNO selected as the programmer, and using the Arduino's USB-serial port (identified by the string "usbmodem" followed by the location (fd12421) of the USB connector in the Macintosh's USB tree).
The Arduino Leonardo and Arduino Micro do not have a permanent serial port. The programming port is implemented with the onboard USB interfaces of the main microprocessor itself. That port is only active for the first 8 seconds after you press and release the Reset button on the Arduino board. After that, the port disappears, unless the currently running program has opened the port.
For programmer that do not have a permanent serial port, AVR Tools include a Serial Port menu item called "(Dynamic)" as shown in the example below:
We will later describe how to make use of the dynamic port function.
With programmers that have a permanent serial port, if you are not sure of the port name of the programmer you can find it by getting a list of serial ports. Select the Show Serial Ports item in the Window menu:
This should bring up a Serial Ports window. By removing the USB adapter of the programmer that you will be using, you should see a Removed message with the name of the port, as shown below:
(The example above is again associated with an Arduino device.) When you plug the device back in, the window should report that the port has been Added.
You can download what is currently in your AVR chip by using the Dump tab.
The Read Memory button will download the Flash and EEPROM memories into two Intel formatted Hex files called avrFlashFile.hex and avrEepromFile.hex. The location the files are downloaded to are selected by using the Browse button; it is defaulted to your home folder.
Note that with an Arduino Leonardo and Arduino Micro, the "dynamic" serial port address requires you to treat the Read Memory button the same way as the Upload button as described in the dynamic Upload Code procedure below.
Read Memory is useful to save a program that has been downloaded by a different program. With an Arduino, you can upload a Sketch (e.g., ArduinoISP) using the Arduino Java program, and then download the flash memory in AVR Tools so that, you can upload the program by using AVR Tools in the future, and not need to run Java.
Each of the fuses (if it exist) is downloaded and displayed in green into the log window. The following shows the Fuse Extended Byte (eFuse) that is dumped (value is 01 hex) from a new ATmega168:
(AVR Tools actually asks avrdude to read the fuse into a file in your /tmp directory. AVR Tools then reads the file back from /tmp when avrdude is done.)
If you get a message that the fuse does not exist, you might check if the log shows any errors. For example, if ATtiny85 is chosen as the device and the ATmega168 is in the programmer's socket, you might see the log below:
Notice in the above, that avrdude says that it has read back the device signature from an ATmega168 instead of the device signature that it expects from an ATtiny85.
Once all devices and ports have been set up, go back to the Program tab and click on Upload. You should see avrdude's progress printed to the log text view. Once you have saved this session into a file, and open the session at a future date, you will not need to do any setups. All the fields are saved into the session file.
If you are using the Arduino Leonardo or the Arduino Micro, follow the procedure in the next section.
Uploading Code to a Programmer That Does Not Have a Permanent Serial Port.
Like the Arduino UNO, the Arduino Leonardo and Arduino Micro implement the serial port as a USB CDC Class device with a mircoprocessor. However, the serial port for the Leonardo and Micro are not implemented with a separate micro processor like in the UNO.
As a result, when the reset button of the Arduino Leonardo and Micro are depressed to enter the Bootloader mode, the serial port on them also vanish.
The serial port is only active for the first 8 seconds after you press and release the Reset button on the Leonardo and Micro boards. After that, the port again disappears, unless the currently running program has opened the port.
Since the serial port is available only momentarily, AVR Tools implements a "dynamic" scheme to discover the serial port and connect to it. The Programmer port is set to "(Dynamic)".
To upload code to the Arduino Leonardo or Arduino Micro:
- Press the Reset button on the Arduino board.
Keep the Reset button depressed until
This removes the Arduino serial port from the Macintosh's IOKit list.
- Click on the Upload button in AVR Tools.
If "(Dynamic)" is selected as the Programmer's port, AVR Tools first makes a list of existing serial ports. It then waits until a new serial port appears. If AVR Tools does not see a new serial port within 8 seconds, it will stop the upload process and display a warning Alert window.
- Release the Reset button on the Arduino within 8
seconds of clicking on the Upload button.
This should create a new serial port. AVR Tools will see the new port and use it to to upload the binary hex code to the Arduino.
Follow the same process to read the flash memory on the Arduino. In this case, click on the Read Memory button instead of the Upload button in AVR Tools.
You can save the session to a file (a file with .avrtools extension) that contains the name of your current hex files, fuses, device, programmer and serial port settings. You can for example save this together with your AVR project so you would not need to set everything up again in the future. Use the Open... or Open Recent in the AVR Tools File menu to open this saved session.
You can also double click on the session file to launch AVR Tools and open the session file. If you have not previously saved a session file, a Save will behave as Save As... .
A saved AVR Tools session file has the following Finder icon:
AVR Tools comes with a terminal emulator. To start the emulator, click on the Terminal tab of the session window. You will be presented with the serial port parameters (these parameters are also saved to the session file):
Click on the Open Connection button when all the parameters are set up. This will open a separate emulator window. Anything that you type in that second emulator window will go out on the serial port and anything that the serial port receives will be printed to the text view in the emulator window. If you have selected the crlf checkbox, each newline that you type will be sent to the serial port as a pair of carriage return/linefeed characters.
The serial port is disconnected when you close that second emulator window.